TAILS-为网络匿名量身定制的“LIVE”操作系统 更新至Tails 0.22.1 February 4, 2014

2014/02/06
Tails(“遗忘式匿名Live系统”)是一款同微软Windows或苹果一般的操作系统,特为保护用户的隐私及网络匿名而开发。这套系统使用户在任何电脑上都能以匿名方式使用整个网络,不会留下任何暴露其操作的痕迹。


Tails是基于Debian发行版(最受欢迎的开源操作系统)的GNU/Linux操作系统,其所包含的软件均为开源软件。这里需要重点说明的是,从计算机安全角度来看,除非具备此方面的专业知识,一般用户对专有软件的安全性都不能掉以轻心。因为与开源软件不同,专有软件不公布其原代码,因此使用者也无法对其存在的安全漏洞或“后门”问题进行检测。此外,大部分的木马病毒或恶意软件都是针对微软Windows甚至苹果的操作系统,当然也有部分是针对GNU/Linux系统的。

在尽情使用的同时不留下任何痕迹
Tails系统由匿名的骇客或骇客活动家以“保护用户隐私及网络匿名”为名进行开发和更新,它能避免在电脑上留下任何操作痕迹,除非用户明确要求(例如,为记忆所使用的文档或记录用户的收藏夹、软件偏好选择等)。
Tails系统的用户无需调整电脑上现有的操作系统。Tails系统并不占用电脑的硬盘乃至交换空间,它唯一占用的仅是内存空间,且在每次关闭电脑时会自动删除。
Tails系统可以代替或与现有的Windows系统互补共存,它也可以预装载在DVD或USB上通过外接启动。用户完全可以使用一台“清洁”的电脑(或已经初始化的电脑),通过运行Tails而非Windows系统上网或连接数据,既安全又隐秘。为了不引起注意,Tails还提供伪装选项,为用户提供一个仿Windows XP的系统界面。



如此您可以在家里,朋友家中或图书馆某个角落使用该系统。一旦您的CD或USB从电脑上弹出或拔起,该电脑将会回复到惯常的操作系统而不会留下运行Tails系统的任何痕迹。您因此可以在任何电脑上操作某个敏感的文档,一旦电脑关闭该文档的数据将无法恢复。

警告:尽管Tails的开发者尽其所能为用户在使用电脑时提供最有效的隐私保护工具,但就这个复杂问题没有一个解决方案是完美的。因此了解集成在Tails系统内的各种工具的局限性对于使用者来说就至关重要——首先可以帮助用户确定Tails是否为其所需,其次可以最大限度地利用这个工具。

最佳的加密和匿名工具
Tails集合了保证安全沟通的最主要的(开源)工具和软件,因此将其作为操作系统来使用是最好的。您也可以选择在您的工作电脑上根据需要装载全部或部分预装的软件(大部分软件都可以运行在Windows/苹果和GNU/Linux系统上),从而在无需装载或使用Tails系统的情况下使用这些软件的各种功能……这样您可以避免因使用此类屏蔽通道而造成系统漏洞的风险:

使用Tor及其Vidalia图像界面浏览网络而不用担心留下任何痕迹,使用Torbutton可以保护自身不受恶意网页特效代码的攻击;
I2P是一个分散型的活跃网络,保证以一种安全和匿名的方式上网及沟通;
HTTPS Everywhere是一个特殊插件,让您的浏览器在https模式下(即安全加密模式)只连接到最著名和最常用的网站;
预先与OTR(“消除档案”)组件相配置的Pidgin是一款即时通信软件(类似GTalk, MSN),安全加密且可以真正地保护用户隐私(该软件具有保存对话选项,但当操作系统的使用并非足够安全时,使用者应当在“设置偏好”里将这个功能选项关闭);
GnuPG是PGP的开源版,后者是目前最著名也是最受欢迎的文档及邮件加密工具,使用者还可以对其邮件进行“签名”,从而对邮件进行认证以防止身份盗用的现象发生。该软件还可以创建保险箱,在保险箱门关闭前任何人都可以在其中放置留言、文档或其他数据——仅有拥有保险箱钥匙的人才能打开保险箱……这一切令GPG成为计算机安全领域事实上的行业标准;
TrueCrypt可以自创加密分区或电子保险箱;
PWGen可以生成可靠的密码;
Florence是一款“虚拟键盘”,用户由此可通过用鼠标(或触摸板)点击格子而非直接按键盘来输入密码,从而防止“按键记录器”记录下所有的按键信息;
MAT可以将文档中的“准个人数据”(创建及修改日期、GPS数据、电脑或照相机的用户身份等)进行加密。
如想了解更多以及如何在USB或CD光盘上安装 Tails,请访问网站tails.boum.org 上的完整文献,该网站同时提供操作系统的下载。
amnesianoun:
forgetfulness; loss of long-term memory.
incognitoadjective & adverb:
(of a person) having one's true identity concealed.
Tails is a live system that aims to preserve your privacy and anonymity. It helps you to use the Internet anonymously and circumvent censorship almost anywhere you go and on any computer but leaving no trace unless you ask it to explicitly.
It is a complete operating system designed to be used from a DVD, USB stick, or SD card independently of the computer's original operating system. It is Free Software and based on Debian GNU/Linux.
Tails comes with several built-in applications pre-configured with security in mind: web browser, instant messaging client, email client, office suite, image and sound editor, etc.

Online anonymity and censorship circumvention with Tor

Tails relies on the Tor anonymity network to protect your privacy online:
  • all software is configured to connect to the Internet through Tor
  • if an application tries to connect to the Internet directly, the connection is automatically blocked for security.
Tor is free software and an open network that helps you defend against a form of network surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy, confidential business activities and relationships, and state security known as traffic analysis.
Tor protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location.
Using Tor you can:
  • be anonymous online by hiding your location,
  • connect to services that would be censored otherwise;
  • resist attacks that block the usage of Tor using circumvention tools such as bridges.
To learn more about Tor, see the official Tor website:
To learn more about how the usage of Tor is enforced, see our design document.

Use anywhere but leave no trace

Using Tails on a computer doesn't alter or depend on the operating system installed on it. So you can use it in the same way on your computer, a friend's or one at your local library. After shutting down Tails, the computer can start again on its usual operating system.
Tails is configured with special care to not use the computer's hard-disks, even if there is some swap space on them. The only storage space used by Tails is the RAM, which is automatically erased when the computer shuts down. So you won't leave any trace neither of the Tails system nor of what you did on the computer. That's why we call it "amnesic".
This allows you to work on sensitive documents on any computer and protect you from data recovery after shutdown. Of course, you can still explicitly save some documents to another USB or external hard-disk and take them away for future use.

State-of-the-art cryptographic tools

Tails also comes with a selection of tools to protect your data using strong encryption:

What's next?

To continue discovering Tails, you can now read:

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